4 Terms and Definitions


Formally, the Atom Syndication Format, is an XML language used for web service feeds. The Atom Publishing Protocol is a simple HTTP-based protocol for creating and updating web resources.

Metadata Provider

A company that provides, usually on request, information about Works, Resources, Releases or Parties other than the information communicated in a NewReleaseMessage defined in the ERN Standard. Examples include record companies as well as dedicated metadata service companies.


A Manifestation of a Release (or another Resource) which is made available to Consumers, by sale, loan or other means. The attributes of a Release in its digital manifestation as a Product may be technical (e.g., the codec or bit rate); a mode of distribution (e.g., downloading or streaming); or a commercial term (e.g., price).


A Release is an abstract entity representing a bundle of one or more Resources compiled by an Issuer. The Resources in Releases are normally primarily sound recordings or music audio-visual recordings, but this is not invariably the case. The Release is not itself the item of trade (or “Product”). Products have more extensive attributes than Releases; one Release may be disseminated in many different Products.

Release Creator

Release Creator is an organisation which is the owner of copyrights in sound and/or music audiovisual recordings and/or exclusive licensees of copyrights in sound and/or music audiovisual recordings. Typical Release Creators are record companies.

Release Distributor

Release Distributor is an organisation, which is duly authorised by a Release Creator to offer Releases manifested in the form of Products to consumers. Release Distributors include Digital Service Providers (DSPs) and Mobile Service Providers (MSPs) as well as other organisations. Typical Release Distributors are DSPs.

Web Service

A modern set of web technologies that allow small pieces of information, typically in the form of XML files, to be exchanged. Augmented with FTP (or other file exchange mechanisms) they can be used to communicate Releases along the music supply chain.

Web Service Call

The sending of an XML document to a port/address on a web server, using HTTP or HTTPS.

Web Service Response

The sending of an XML document in direct response to a Web Service Call, using HTTP or HTTPS. For the avoidance of doubt, the appropriate response is always the message indicated in the appropriate Choreography.